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Vision Statement

Our vision for Positive Behavior Social Emotional Support (PBSES) is to promote respect, positive relationships, and predictable, proactive learning environments so that students can lead socially and emotionally safe and healthy lives. 

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What is PBSES?

  1. What does PBSES stand for?

    Positive Behavior and Social Emotional Support.

    This acronym is a combination of PBIS (Positive Behavior and Intervention Support) and SEL (Social Emotional Learning).  Research has found student outcomes improve in overall mental health and reductions in externalizing behaviors compared to only PBIS or only SEL conditions (Cook, 2013).

  2. What is PBSES?

    PBSES is not a curriculum, but a process of planning and problem solving that includes direct teaching of social behaviors just like academics are taught. Most importantly, it establishes ongoing behavior support that can be used by ALL students, staff, volunteers, parents and community members.

    PBSES consists of four evidence-based components that work together to create good outcomes for students and a better school climate. The four components work together and overlap.

  3.  What are the four components?

    - PBIS (Positive Behavior and Intervention Support) is a pro-active approach to increasing positive student behavior through direct instruction. In every school, staff teach behavior expectations to students that are consistent with pro-social traits such as responsibility and respect. The behavior expectations are taught to students throughout the school year in different areas of the school. Students receive positive recognition for following behavior expectations. Students who have difficulty with learning behavior expectations are provided additional instruction in small groups or on an individual basis. Parents play a key role in supporting PBIS by positively acknowledging their students when they follow the behavior expectations at their school.

    - SEL (Social Emotional Learning) is the process through which children and adults acquire and effectively apply the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary to understand and manage emotions, set and achieve positive goals, feel and show empathy for others, establish and maintain positive relationships, and make responsible decisions. SEL programming is based on the understanding that the best learning emerges in the context of supportive relationships that make learning challenging, engaging, and meaningful.

    - PR (Positive Relationships): Having a supportive relationship with an adult is one of the most commonly reported protective factors in the literature on resilience (Pianta & Walsh, 1998; Werner, 1999).  The quality of children’s relationships with teachers has been found to be a major component of adaptation in school (Pianta et al., 1995).  Teachers can act as role models (Henderson & Milstein, 1996), reward and reinforce children’s competencies (Werner, 1995), and provide high levels of social support (Miller et al., 1998) (Lynch, Geller, & Schmidt, 2004, p. 338).

    - PCM Strategies (Proactive Classroom Management Strategies): Refers to an approach to classroom management that simultaneously promotes high levels of academic engagement while also preventing off-task and disruptive behavior.  It is designed to be preventative, integrates instruction and management which provides explicit instruction, guided practice, and performance feedback in classroom rules and routines to enhance students’ chances for academic and social success, and the focus is on group aspects of classroom management rather than individual student behavior (Rathvon, 2008).

  4.  What is the PBSES framework for implementation?

    PBSES uses MTSS (Multi-Tiered Systems of Support) which is a term used to describe an evidence‐based model of schooling that uses data‐based problem‐solving to integrate academic and behavioral instruction and intervention. The integrated instruction and intervention is delivered to students in varying intensities (multiple tiers) based on student need. “Need driven” decision‐making seeks to ensure that district resources reach the appropriate students (schools) at the appropriate levels to accelerate the performance of ALL students to achieve and/or exceed proficiency.

    There are Seven Key Concepts to MTSS

    Multiple Tiers of Support –

    MTSS is the practice of: Serving ALL students through continuum of care- Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3

    Tier 1 is what all students get in the form of instruction (academic and behavior/social-­‐emotional) and student supports. Tier 1 focuses on the implementation school-wide PBIS and SEL, Proactive classroom mgmt., positive relationships with all. Tier 1 services (time and focus) are based on the needs of the students in a particular school. Some schools require more time than other schools based on student demographics.

    Tier 2 is what some students receive in addition to Tier 1 instruction. The purpose of Tier 2 instruction and supports is to improve student performance under Tier 1 performance expectations (levels and conditions of performance). Tier 2 services are more “intense” (more time, narrow focus of intervention) than Tier 1. Tier 2 services can be provided by a variety of professionals (e.g., general education and/or remedial teachers, behavior specialists) in any setting (general education classroom, separate settings, home). Tier 2- small group and individual strategies.

    Tier 3 is what few students receive and is the most intense service level a school can provide to a student. Typically, Tier 3 services are provided to very small groups and/or individual students. The purpose of Tier 3 services is to help students overcome significant barriers to learning academic and/or behavior skills required for school success. Tier 3 services require more time and a more narrow focus of instruction/intervention than Tier 2 services. Tier 3 services require effective levels of collaboration and coordination among the staff (general and specialized) providing services to the student.

    Evidence-Based Practices – 

    Refers to idea that the interventions or supports implemented are supported by scientific research to improve student social and behavior functioning

    Universal Screening Practices –

    Refers to a systematic process of detecting a subset of students from the entire student population who are struggling academically/behaviorally and are at-risk for experiencing a range of negative short- and long-term outcomes.  

    Progress Monitoring –

    Refers to the of systematically and repeatedly assessing students’ academic or behavioral performance with easy and quick tools to make decisions while the instruction or intervention is happening

    Fidelity of Implementation –

    a. Districts and buildings must clearly use the most current research and practice literature in order for fidelity of implementation to be meaningful.
    b. Fidelity of implementation must be measured at multiple levels within a school and/or district.
    c. Fidelity needs to be approached from a supporting vs. a policing standpoint.
    d. Fidelity of implementation demonstrates the degree to which our articulated agreements and our values are visible in our daily practice.
    e. The importance of fidelity of implementation increases as high stakes decisions are being made about students, and within and across schools, and/or districts.

    Data-Based Decision Making –

    Refers to a critical element of the problem-solving process that entails consulting student response data in order to make decisions whether to intensify, keep in place, or remove particular interventions or supports. Data-based decision determines whether to: Maintain existing supports, Modify existing supports, Lower down a tier (lessen), Bump up a tier (intensify)

    Problem-Solving Process –

    Refers to the dynamic and systematic process that guides a team’s effort to resolve problems. A problem-­‐solving model provides the structure to identify, develop, implement and evaluate strategies to accelerate the performance of ALL students. The use of scientifically based or evidence-­‐based practices should occur whenever possible. The effectiveness of the problem-­‐solving process is based on both fidelity of the problem-­‐solving process itself and fidelity in the implementation of the instruction/intervention plan. The problem-­‐solving process is applicable to all three tiers of instruction/intervention and can be used for problem-­‐solving at the community, district, school, classroom and/or individual student levels.

  5. Why did ISD invest in PBSES?

    - Current data suggest that while extreme violence is stabilizing (and historically low), the rate of disruptive problem behavior is escalating. The single most common request for assistance from teachers is related to behavior and classroom management (Elam, Rose, & Gallup, 1999).

    - School attempts to respond to these challenges often result in an over-reliance on the use of aversive and exclusionary consequences. This over-reliance on reactive management practices is predictable because teachers, parents, and administrators experience immediate reductions or removals of the problem behavior when they use strong aversive consequences. Therefore, having experienced reductions and relief from student problem behavior, they are more likely to use reactive management practices when future student problem behavior occurs.

    - Some negative side effects are associated with the exclusive use of reactive approaches to discipline include: problem behaviors get worse; negative school climate is established; relationships between teachers and students breakdown; academic achievement declines.        

    - ISD invested in PBSES to improve our school climate. Research shows that when a school environment is positive and predictable, students feel safer, have better academic performance, higher test results, and make better behavior choices.  Schools also show a gain in instructional time, reduction in out of school suspensions and discipline referrals and show a decrease in referrals to Special Education.

  6. What is the role of the Student Support Coach?

    The Student Support Coach trains, coaches, and consults with teachers and staff to recommend appropriate classroom interventions for students with behavior concerns, provides crisis intervention, and provides tools for adults to interact appropriately with social-emotional challenges.

    - Facilitator: Getting to know staff and promoting understanding of PBSES
    - Training and Coaching: Working directly with staff to implement interventions
    - Whole school PD: Informing staff about evidence-based practices of PBIS, SEL, Positive relationships and Proactive Classroom Management
    - Data collection: Establishing a data system to monitor progress and aid in decision making, including the teacher’s belief survey and the student’s universal screener
    - PBSES team: Establish commitment and maintain a team that creates/evaluates the school-wide behavior expectations, using data-based decision making, and problem solving process to work within the multiple tiers of support
    - Additional assignments: webpage, parent workshops, resource management, community outreach

  7. What are the goals of PBSES?

    - Students and staff understand and are mindful of their own social/emotional functioning.
    - Staff demonstrate flexibility and empathy as they respond to individual student needs.
    - Staff implement explicit strategies for establishing, maintaining and restoring relationships.
    - Staff provide a progressive response to problem behaviors through structured Tier 1, 2, and 3 interventions.
    - Students experience a reduction in unhealthy externalizing and internalizing behaviors.  

  8. Why should we invest in Tier 1 supports first?

    - More efficient in time and labor
    - Avoid singling out students
    - Class-wide strategies are more acceptable to teachers (avoids the fairness issue)
    - Peer influence can effect outcomes
    - Positive impact on the functioning of all students in the class
    - Tier 2 and 3 require time, training, capacity to apply more complex supports